In 1890s, the development and use of disc – type brakes had already begun in England. In 1902, the first caliper – type automobile disc brake was made and patented by Frederick William Lanchester in his Birmingham, UK factory and was successfully installed and used on Lanchester cars. The disc brakes offer finer stopping performance, as the discs are more readily cooled, as compared to the drum brakes. As a result, the disc brakes have less chances of brake fade, and pull through more quickly from immersion (wet brakes are less effective). Most of the drum brake designs have at least one leading shoe, which gives a servo – effect. On the contrary, a disc brake has a zero self – servo effect and its braking force is always proportional to the pressure placed on the brake pad by the braking system through any brake servo, braking pedal or lever. Drums are also holds the chances of "bell mouthing", and trap worn lining material within the assembly, both of which are the cause of several braking problems.
A disc brake is a wheel brake which slows down the rotation of the wheel by the friction which is caused by pushing brake pads against a brake disc with a set of calipers. The brake disc is generally made of cast iron, but in some cases it may be made of composites such as unbreakable carbon – carbon or ceramic matrix compounds. This in turn is connected to the wheel and/ or the axle. To stop of the movement of the wheel, friction material in the type of brake pads, mounted on a device called a brake caliper, is forced electromagnetically, pneumatically, hydraulically or mechanically against both sides of the disc. Friction makes the disc and attached wheel to slow or stop. Brakes convert motion to heat, and if the brakes get too hot, they become less effective, this phenomenon is referred to as brake fade.